Matsuev of the future has already been created. It is a robotic virtuoso Teotronico, assembled in Italy. He plays any keyboard instrument of any complexity better than a human, because he has more fingers and a powerful processor. And why are live musicians needed then?
An educational marathon “New Knowledge” was held in Russia, which collected 20 million views. The program consisted of more than 100 events – “open lessons”, lectures, master classes, discussions. The marathon featured 150 eminent speakers. Among them is a well-known neurolinguist, director of the Institute for Cognitive Research, St. Petersburg State University Tatiana Chernigovskaya. AiF publishes a fragment of her lecture.
The civilization of idleness
In our time, many questions have been raised before humanity, but they all boil down to one thing: who is the boss in the house? I mean the brain. I assure you, all developed countries now have brain research projects. This is a very expensive research, but we need to know how it works, how everything is arranged in our head. If you do not know this, there will be nothing good.
So who is the boss in the house? There is evidence that the brain makes a decision a few seconds before the person who seems to own this brain, he believes, made this decision. It turns out that the decision was made before we ourselves know about it.
As I said, there are many questions before us on the “new planet”. Who are we? How are we different from other living beings? Do we have any goals? And I hope they are not about eating as many hamburgers as possible or buying more handbags than others. Agree, it would not be very good.
How do we want to see our own future? If we had the opportunity to control it, perhaps we would like the planet to have no diseases, so that everyone has enough energy. Even if there is no money, everyone lives happily and cheerfully. But is this possible? And who should we raise and educate so that the future we want to take place? Should they be able to think quickly? Or typing quickly on a computer? Or what to do?
An equally serious question: how will we coexist with artificial intelligence? He becomes more powerful, he never gets tired, he doesn't have a headache, he doesn't have a bad mood. If we imagine that he will do all the work for us, what will we do? Usually the answer is that people will be creative. We will write poems, play the lute, and engage in high art. But somehow I do not believe that it will be so.
In this regard, they use a term such as “the civilization of idleness.” This is when people already have nothing to do. Something similar is already happening. Now in some countries people are paid a basic income: let a person live and do nothing, machines will do everything for him.
All life on a USB stick
What follows from this? We found ourselves in a wonderful digital world. When the computer beat the world chess champion for the first time, everyone shuddered: it turns out that the machine defeated one of the strongest human minds. Then they began to say: chess is, of course, a difficult game, but the game of Go is more difficult, it will not succumb to artificial intelligence. But she also succumbed! In 2016, Lee Sedol, the undisputed champion of the game of go, was defeated by the computer program AlphaGo.
Since then, intelligent self-learning programs such as AlphaGo and AlphaZero have taken almost all frontiers – except for chess and go, they have learned to play shogi (a Japanese logic board game – Ed.) And even poker. It's not about the game, but about the fact that they are advancing on our territory. Those things that, as it was previously believed, can only be done by a person, it turns out that a machine can also do.
Why do we need to research artificial intelligence at all? There are different answers. First, this will help us better understand how our brain works, that is, how the original functions. Second, we do this to improve ourselves biologically and technologically. There is even an idea to create new people
who will do everything better than we do. They will be faster, smarter, and have better memory. There are also those who propose to digitize our emotional and mental world. Relatively speaking, “write” a person to a USB flash drive. By doing so, they hope to achieve immortality. Here's a flash drive for you, granddaughter – turn it on and you will see my whole life. And in general, the whole – not the story of my life, but all the sensations, tastes, smells.
And the third answer: we want to improve our life by transferring many of our functions to artificial systems. If so, I don't mind. If we're doing this to find out how our brains work, I'm in favor too. But everything else causes me a sharply negative reaction.
I was deeply shocked that AlphaZero was beating another program with its “deep intuition.” The creators of this program themselves were amazed. They described her manner of playing as alien: such moves have never been encountered either in humans or in other programs. Intuition has always been considered a human trait. But it turned out that the car can outplay us in this field.
A blow to neural networks
Change is happening at a tremendous rate. We have always lived in a ambiguous and contradictory environment. But the difference is that there is a tremendous rate of change now. What used to take hundreds of years, then tens, then years, months and weeks, now happens in hours. We are in this race all the time.
An unpleasant feature of modern life: our ability to verify information has virtually disappeared. Modern technology allows you to create any video that looks believable. And in this video you will say something that you have never said before. Can you trust the information in this case? My answer is this: you need to know where to get it, there is no other option.
We live in a world of social connections. There is such a thing as Dunbar's number: this is the allowable number of social connections depending on the size of the brain. For example, chimpanzees have a brain 3 times smaller than ours. The size of their social group is about 50 individuals, the inner circle is 3-4 individuals. A person has a permissible number of social connections – 150, close ones – 12-15. But check your phone or social media page. How many contacts are there? There are thousands of them! Are we able to withstand it? This is a huge blow to our neural networks.
In the technological era, children are born who are forced to grow up in these new conditions, with gadgets in their hands. But evolution has not changed, children are born with the same brains. And almost immediately they receive a powerful blow to the neural network. These children develop much faster, but I don't know what the teachers will do with them when they go to school.
We are also faced with the fact that legal and ethical standards have failed. Nobody believes anyone, there are a lot of fakes around. What experiments can be done on animals or on humans? For example, can a chip be embedded in the human brain? Something must be done about this, it is time to develop new ethical norms.
New challenges faced pedagogy and education. It is necessary to teach children to understand, not to remember, to educate in them the ability to constant changes, to form the skills of checking information.
At the same time, it is important to maintain humanity in the digital world. A survey was conducted among schoolchildren and students: how do you see the ideal teacher? They answered: a good teacher is someone who understands me, is ready to listen and console, and give advice. We are not talking about knowledge, but about human qualities. After all, no computer program can replace a teacher – neither Google, nor Alice.