Scientists at the Leiden University Medical Center in the Netherlands have determined why coronavirus vaccines and antibody-based drugs may not be effective enough. The conclusions of the experts are published in the journal Frontiers in Immunology.
The researchers concluded that the S-protein of the virus binds unusually tightly to the ACE2 receptor located on the surface of mucosal cells. At least 18 points of contact were counted. That said, the main domain of this connection hasn't changed since the initial outbreak in China in November 2019. This means that a person must produce several types of antibodies at once that can block the S-protein in order to quickly cope with the coronavirus.
Only eight points of contact have been found between the SARS-CoV-1 virus and the hACE2 receptor. This indicates that antibodies against severe acute respiratory syndrome virus will not be as effective against the new coronavirus. Interspecies comparisons show that the structure of human ACE2 is very similar to that of a feline, which explains the high likelihood of transmission of the virus between humans and felines.